# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you consider numericals currently, the first of all that springs to mind is the decimal system we utilize regularly. This system, however, is not the single fashion to depict numbers. There are multiple systems used by various cultures worldwide that use all kinds of characters. Classified among many one of the approach is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a method of writing numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. It remained during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still educated in school, which is probably why you have come across this article.

Now, we are gonna to walkthrough Roman numbers, what they are, how they operate, and how to change Roman numbers to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

Primarily, let's take a brief look at the past of Roman numerals. Roman numericals were first used by the historic Romans, as you might have guessed from the name. They were employed in several angles of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Presently, its main use is primarily due to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman numeral system consist of numbers using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are mixed to form groups that depict numbers. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then combine these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numerals are established on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more key distinction is that the decimal system is based on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are founded on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few interactive examples of Roman numerals.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we observe the number in the name, we see it includes a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman numerals is described by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we comprehend that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the properties we will discuss subsequently in the article.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last entry in the original trilogy. Looking at the value described, it contains a V followed by an I. Thus, we will add a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, comprehending this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is crucial to know the numeric value of all the letters. To guide make this function easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with defined number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Everyday Numericals

Now that we have the useful table of Roman numerals, we can use that data to change numbers back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will transform these values at any time.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Regular Numbers

To change Roman numbers to decimal numericals, we will utilize the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

Start at the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is smaller in value, then sum the both values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process unless you reach the end of the Roman number group.

Let's check out how you can convert Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman number, which is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the two values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and the result is 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we sum the two values and get 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we add the two values and get 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman number group. Hence, the Roman number LXXVI is equal to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Because 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and get 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our answer. So, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equal to the decimal number 1903.

With this knowledge and a some practice, you will change Roman numerals to decimal numbers like an expert!

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